US Navy Light Cruiser 1941-45, Mark Stille .Meliputi lima kelas kapal penjelajah ringan US Navy yang melihat layanan selama Perang Dunia Kedua, dengan bagian pada desain mereka, persenjataan, radar, pengalaman tempur. Terorganisir dengan baik, dengan catatan layanan masa perang dipisahkan dari teks utama, sehingga sejarah desain kapal penjelajah ringan mengalir dengan baik. Menarik untuk melihat bagaimana peran baru harus ditemukan untuk mereka, setelah teknologi lain menggantikan mereka sebagai pesawat pengintai [baca ulasan lengkap]
USS Detroit (AOE 4)
USS DETROIT adalah kapal keempat dan terakhir dari Kapal Pendukung Tempur Cepat kelas pertama Angkatan Laut. Homeport terakhir di Earle, NJ, DETROIT dinonaktifkan pada 17 Februari 2005, dan kemudian diletakkan di Philadelphia, Penn. DETROIT dijual untuk dibuang pada bulan September 2005 ke ESCO Marine Inc., Brownsville, Tx. Scraping selesai pada 3 November 2006.
|Karakteristik umum:||Diberikan: 29 Desember 1965|
|Keel diletakkan: 29 November 1966|
|Diluncurkan: 21 Juni 1969|
|Ditugaskan: 28 Maret 1970|
|Dinonaktifkan: 17 Februari 2005|
|Pembangun: Galangan Kapal Angkatan Laut Puget Sound, Bremerton, Washington|
|Sistem Propulsi: empat Boiler Propulsi V2M 600 PSI|
|Panjang: 794 kaki (242 meter)|
|Balok: 107 kaki (32,6 meter)|
|Draf: 38 kaki (11,6 meter)|
|Perpindahan: kira-kira. 53.800 ton|
|Kecepatan: 26 knot|
|Pesawat: dua CH-46|
|Persenjataan: satu peluncur Sea Sparrow, dua Phalanx CIWS|
|Kru: 48 Perwira, 678 Terdaftar|
Bagian ini berisi nama-nama pelaut yang bertugas di kapal USS DETROIT. Ini bukan daftar resmi tetapi berisi nama-nama pelaut yang menyerahkan informasi mereka.
Kecelakaan di kapal USS DETROIT:
|1 Maret 1971||70 mil dari Carolina Selatan|
Small Resin Parts
The instructions are done on an oversized 17x11, and are both clearly written and easy to follow. They include a parts list, drawings of the individual parts, and profile/plan views to assist in placement. Also included are detailed drawings explaining deck structure assemblies, some of which can be confusing. I especially appreciated the inclusion of assembly tips for making assembly go more smoothly.
If there is a downside to this kit, it is the lack of photoetched brass. Conversations with Mike Czibovic of Corsair Armada revealed that many of his other kits include brass supplied by Tom's Modelworks. But don't fret, because Tom's Modelworks has a set specifically for this kit. Set number 718 includes catapults, searchlight and signal platforms, funnel caps, cranes, and lots of detail parts. Two other requirements are Tom's Modelworks set number 704, 3-bar rails, and 706, US radars. The addition of these 3 sets provides you with all the brass you'll need to complete this model. You should also consider replacing of the 20mm guns with brass parts also available from Tom's.
This is the third Corsair Armada Productions kit I've purchased, and to date no other resin kit manufacturer has so impressed me in overall quality. When one considers the resources of a company like Waveline, Corsair Armada can take justifiable pride that even though they're a small operation, their kits are among the best available. This kit is highly recommended, and I personally will continue to purchase Corsairs new kits without reservation.
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A Survivor at the Surrender, USS Virginia Barat
Severely damaged by Japanese torpedoes at Pearl Harbor, USS Virginia Barat returned to service in October 1944. When the Japanese surrendered on September 2, 1945, she was in Tokyo Bay, a symbol of the resilience of the United States Navy.
By all accounts, she shouldn’t have been there. She had suffered damage beyond any expectations her designers had. But she was an American warship, a fulfillment of Alfred T. Mahan’s ideas of power projected around the world. Her salvage and repair were a feat of engineering and determination. A phoenix rises from the ashes, but USS Virginia Barat (BB-48) rose from the waters of Pearl Harbor to contribute to the defeat of the Japanese empire.
Pearl Harbor was shallow, and on December 7, 1941, Virginia Barat was moored outboard of USS Tennessee (BB-43) at Ford Island in 40 feet of water. As the Japanese attack began, Virginia Barat, her port side laid bare, became an easy target for enemy torpedoes. The first two struck simultaneously, at 7:55 a.m, as General Quarters sounded. Men poured from hatchways as she began to list. A third explosion rocked the battlewagon. Spotter planes atop main turrets were aflame when a massive explosion on USS Arizona (BB-39) sent chunks of steel flying into the air. Moored nearby, pieces as large as five inches rained down on Virginia Barat. Gun crews fired on approaching enemy aircraft, adding to the cacophony of the first day of a new war.
Torpedoes ripped into her hull below the waterline and bombs fell from enemy aircraft, one causing the sections of the superstructure to collapse. As fires broke out, the ship’s damage control parties fruitlessly attempted to extinguish them. All hands not severely wounded were at work, fighting fires, manning guns, or assisting with damage control. Up on the bridge, the ship’s commanding officer, Captain Mervyn S. Bennion, had been mortally wounded in the abdomen by an explosion. Mess Attendant second class Doris Miller helped pull sailors through oil and water, up to higher decks not awash as Virginia Barat began to settle on the bottom. Miller assisted with moving the wounded Bennion, and even though he’d had no instruction in the weapon’s use, manned a machine gun, firing at incoming Japanese planes.
Eventually the order to abandon ship was given. As the wounded were loaded into whaleboats and other small craft, others either crossed over to Tennessee, or dove into the oil-covered water, swimming to Ford Island. When the crew was finally accounted for, there were two officers, including her commanding officer Bennion, and 106 enlisted men killed. Numerous others were wounded, and some would need months to recover from the attack. Virginia Barat, known by her crews as “Wee Vee” would need much longer.
On the left is Tennessee, next to her is the sunken West Virginia at Pearl Harbor, the extent of the flooding and damage evident. Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command.
Damage to West Virginia has been marked on this drawing of the ship, taken from the Material Damage report from February 1942. Note this is the starboard side, not the port side where the actual damage occurred. This was the only drawing available at the time the report was made. Two additional torpedo hits were later confirmed, including the one which knocked her rudder off. Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command.
The damage inflicted in a matter of minutes took over two years to repair. To say the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, left Virginia Barat crippled is understating the true extent of the damage. In an official report of ships damage at Pearl Harbor, Virginia Barat hardly sounds worth repairing:
“Virginia Barat sank at her berth as a result of four or five aircraft torpedo hits and at least two bomb hits. The vessel rests on a hard bottom with all spaces flooded up to two or three feet below the main deck. Most of the damage from torpedoes is in the midship area, which is badly wrecked both below water and above water. A large bomb passed through the foretop and the boat deck and apparently exploded near the port side on the main or second deck. This explosion caused considerable wreckage and a terrific powder and oil fire, which burned out the whole area and extended to the foremast structure up to and including the bridge. A second bomb hit the top of turret III and passed through the 6-inch top. The nature of the penetration indicated defective material. This bomb did not explode but caused damage to the slide of the left gun. Recently another torpedo hole, and parts of the torpedo, have been located aft under the counter. The steering engine room appears to be wrecked and the rudder is lying on the bottom.”
Her salvation was due to the actions of one man, which resulted in Virginia Barat remaining upright at her moorings, unlike USS Oklahoma (BB-37), which capsized. Lieutenant Commander John S. Harper, the damage control officer aboard Virginia Barat, quickly initiated counterflooding, keeping the battlewagon upright. Hasil dari, Virginia Barat was found to be drawing 50 feet 6 inches forward, and 40 feet 10 inches aft, compared to her usual draft of approximately 30 feet. The midship area was considerably damaged, and the oil fire, which had burned for 30 hours, caused extensive damage to the upper works. The hull crinkled as the ship settled on the bottom, and one torpedo had knocked the rudder off. Despite the damage, the decision was made to salvage the ravaged ship, modernize her, and return her to service.
Salvage was undertaken in several stages. Patches had to be placed on holes in the hull by divers. These patches were made as cofferdams, which were large wooden structures braced with steel and attached to the ship by divers. Special concrete that would harden in water was then poured into sections around the cofferdams, sealing the bottoms and making them watertight. With the major holes patched, 800,000 gallons of fuel oil, all projectiles and other supplies were removed from the ship to reduce weight. As water was pumped out of the ship, salvage crews began to work through compartments, removing the remains of 66 trapped sailors. Marks on a bulkhead in one compartment indicated three sailors survived there for 16 days. With access to food and water, they held on until the breathable air ran out.
The work was done in earnest, performed by naval and civilian personnel and a skeleton crew of sailors and marines which remained attached to Virginia Barat. Specialists from various companies arrived in Pearl Harbor to break down and repair equipment such as electrical panels and the steam-driven turbine engines which powered Virginia Barat. Seventy tons of fresh meat had been aboard Wee Vee when she sank, all of which the crew removed via 10 gallon cans. Crews took care to wear rescue breathing apparatus or monitor the air quality as they cleaned compartments. Those containing large stores of paper were some of the most hazardous to empty, as the decaying paper gave off noxious gasses.
On May 17, 1942, Virginia Barat was once again floated. The first step in her recovery was done, and she was moved to Drydock #1 at Pearl on June 9. Her draft had improved to 33 feet, just barely allowing her to enter the drydock. There, repairs were made to the hull to make it watertight once again. Machinery and other equipment were removed and either repaired at Pearl or marked for later installation stateside. The oil residue left behind had to be removed from surfaces. At the time of the attack, Virginia Barat still had her original cage masts, both of which were removed in Pearl. Some guns were repaired so the ship could defend itself on the trip home. Crew spaces were cleaned up and returned to a usable state, and while the enlisted galley had burned, the officer’s galley was repaired and put to use for the entire crew. The ship was safely floated again after just three months, but work on the ship continued pier side until April 1943. On April 30, after more than a year of work on temporary repairs, Virginia Barat was stabilized, repaired, and ready to make the journey to Bremerton, Washington, for final repairs and outfitting.
Six months after she sank at her moorings, West Virginia moves to Drydock #1 at Pearl Harbor for temporary repairs to enable the ship to return to the United States. Note the water being pumped out, and the cofferdams attached as temporary patches to allow her to flow. Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command.
In Drydock #1, the hull and upper decks on the port side have been cut away as West Virginia undergoes repairs. Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command.
Teams work to demolish the cofferdams installed against the ship’s hull. Alongside the bottom of the ship, the concrete poured into the cofferdams is visible. The ship’s armor belt is distorted from the damage inflicted by enemy torpedoes. Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command.
The dirty, difficult work to clean and repair the ship was performed by all ranks. On the left is Salvage Officer Captain Homer N. Wallin with the West Virginia’s new commanding officer, Lieutenant Commander William White. Both men wear the tank suit coveralls and knee-length rubber boots worn by all men when engaged in particularly dirty salvage work. Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command.
West Virginia underway under her own power on April 30, 1943, for the Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Washington, for final repairs and outfitting. Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command.
In early July 1944, over two and a half years after the attack at Pearl Harbor, Virginia Barat began her sea trials from Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Washington. She had been at the yard in Washington for over a year undergoing permanent repairs and modernization. The ship that took to the seas in July 1944 looked nothing like the old battlewagon that had been a target of the Japanese attack. Equipped with updated radar and fire-control equipment, she was ready to unleash the power of her 16-inch main battery on the enemy who had sidelined her years before.
West Virginia around 1934 in San Francisco Bay. The last of the dreadnaughts, she was commissioned in 1923, the last battleship completed before the limitations imposed by the Washington Naval Treaty. She had not yet been modernized in 1941, so she appeared at Pearl Harbor as seen here, with the cage masts common of pre-treaty battleships. Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command.
After undergoing repairs and modernization, the 22 year old battleship was outfitted with some of the most modern technology and was barely recognizable as the same ship from Pearl Harbor. Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command.
Her first opportunity to exact her toll on Japanese forces came on October 19, 1944, as Wee Vee bombarded targets in Leyte, Philippines, flying the same flag which had been hoisted on that fateful Sunday in December. The next day, she covered landing forces there, providing fire as needed. What might be her crowning achievement came on October 25, when she participated in the battle of Surigao Strait. In what was to be the last engagement of battleships in history, Virginia Barat opened fire on an enemy ship, firing 16 salvos from her main battery. When the smoke cleared, the target was discovered to be the Japanese battleship Yamashiro, which sank in minutes. Meskipun Virginia Barat’s captain let the crew claim credit, the damage had been inflicted by five battleships, plus cruisers, firing on the Japanese ship and making it a group effort which sank her.
After her triumphant engagement at Surigao, Virginia Barat continued her tear across the Pacific, supporting the landings at Mindoro, Luzon, Iwo Jima, and finally, Okinawa. After spending years in dry docks and shipyards, Virginia Barat put in 223 days in battle, where she shot down eight would-be Kamikazes and assisted with 12 others. Her number came up on April 1, 1945, when one successful Japanese pilot plowed his aircraft into Wee Vee, killing four sailors and wounding 23. But after Pearl, one enemy aircraft was akin to a mosquito bite, and she stayed in the action.
On August 31, 1945, Virginia Barat steamed into Tokyo Bay. A Japanese harbor pilot had come aboard to navigate the battlewagon to her berth. Five members of the ship’s crew, all musicians, were transferred to USS Missouri (BB-63) to augment the band which would play at the official surrender ceremony.
As the Japanese delegation boarded Missouri on September 2, Virginia Barat lay in harbor some distance away. She was the only survivor of the Pearl Harbor attack present in Tokyo Bay that morning. (The cruiser USS Detroit (CL-8), had also been present at Pearl, but received no damage.) As the most important ceremony of the war got underway, Virginia Barat had no role in the somber occasion. She lay silently, ghastly in the distance, a triumphant reminder of how Japan had gambled and lost.
James Downing: Oral History
Downing entered the Navy in September 1932 and became a gunner's mate aboard USS West Virginia. He assisted the injured crew during the Pearl Harbor attack, and later wrote notes to each family member explaining what had happened to their relatives and their current condition.
Artikel ini adalah bagian dari seri berkelanjutan untuk memperingati 75 tahun berakhirnya Perang Dunia II yang dimungkinkan oleh Bank of America.
Fifth USS Detroit
The fifth USS Detroit was the fourth and last Sacramento-class fast combat support ship built for the US Navy. She was commissioned on March 28, 1970. During her 35-year service, Detroit operated primarily with the US 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf regions.
From the Puget Sound Naval Yard, Detroit sailed to her first operational home port in Newport, Rhode Island, passing the horn of South America. In March 1971, she was involved in a minor collision with a US Navy olier off the coast of South Carolina. After that, she was deployed for operations with the 6th Fleet.
When she was undergoing repairs on December 12, 1973, Detroit’s aft engine room exhaust stack exploded, causing extensive damage. However, she was repaired and moved to a new home port in Norfolk. She continued her service without incident until June 10, 1981. Detroit ran aground on a sandbar in Hampton Roads while she was entering port. After four days, she was refloated, but the commanding officer was relieved of command.
In the late 90s, Detroit was key in Operation Desert Fox. She provided ammunition, combat stores, fresh food, and fuel to battle group units in the operation. On August 27, 2000, Detroit was involved in a minor collision with the USS Nicholson about 100 miles off the Virginia Capes. Fortunately, damage to the ships was minor.
Detroit was decommissioned on February 17, 2005 and berthed at the inactive ships maintenance facility at Philadelphia. She was brought to Brownsville, Tx for final disposal in October 2005.